Non-ferrous metals supplier
Non-ferrous metal [ Metallurgy ] non-ferrous metal, non-ferrous metal in a narrow sense, also known as non-ferrous metal, is a general term for all metals except iron , manganese and chromium. Non-ferrous metals in a broad sense also include non-ferrous alloys.
Non-ferrous alloy is an alloy composed of a non-ferrous metal as the base (usually more than 50%) and adding one or several other elements. Nonferrous metals generally refer to all metals except iron (and sometimes manganese and chromium) and iron-based alloys . Non-ferrous metals can be divided into heavy metals (such as copper, lead, zinc), light metals (such as aluminum, magnesium), precious metals (such as gold, silver , platinum ) and rare metals (such as tungsten, molybdenum , germanium , lithium , lanthanum , uranium ).
Non-ferrous metals refer to all metals except iron, chromium and manganese. In 1958, China listed iron, chromium, and manganese as ferrous metals; and 64 metals other than iron, chromium, and manganese were listed as non-ferrous metals. These 64 non-ferrous metals include: aluminum, magnesium, potassium, sodium, calcium, strontium, barium, copper, lead, zinc, tin, cobalt, nickel, antimony, mercury, cadmium, bismuth, gold, silver, platinum, ruthenium, rhodium , palladium, osmium, iridium, beryllium, lithium, rubidium, cesium, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten, molybdenum, gallium, indium, thallium, germanium, rhenium, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, samarium , europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, lutetium, scandium, yttrium , thorium.
The strength and hardness of non-ferrous alloys are generally higher than those of pure metals, their electrical resistance is larger than that of pure metals, their temperature coefficient of resistance is smaller, and they have good comprehensive mechanical properties . Commonly used non-ferrous alloys include aluminum alloys , copper alloys , magnesium alloys , nickel alloys , tin alloys , tantalum alloys , titanium alloys , zinc alloys , molybdenum alloys , and zirconium alloys .
Because rare metals are of great significance in modern industry, they are sometimes separated from non-ferrous metals and become a separate category. And juxtaposed with ferrous metals and non-ferrous metals, it has become the three major categories of metals.
Non-ferrous metals are the basic materials for the development of the national economy. Most industries such as aviation, aerospace, automobiles, machinery manufacturing, electric power, communications, construction, and home appliances use non- ferrous metal materials as the basis for production. With the rapid development of modern industry, agriculture and science and technology, the status of non-ferrous metals in human development is becoming more and more important. It is not only an important strategic material and an important means of production in the world, but also an important material for consumption means that is indispensable in human life.
Copper in non-ferrous metals is one of the earliest metal materials used by humans. Modern non-ferrous metals and their alloys have become indispensable structural and functional materials in the fields of machinery manufacturing, construction, electronics, aerospace, and nuclear energy utilization.
In practical applications, non-ferrous metals are usually divided into 5 categories:
Density less than 4500 kg/m3 (0.53-4.5g/cm 3 ), such as aluminum , magnesium, potassium, sodium, calcium, strontium , barium, etc.
Density greater than 4500 kg/m3 (4.5g/cm 3 ), such as copper, nickel , cobalt, lead, zinc, tin , antimony, bismuth , cadmium , mercury, etc.
The price is more expensive than commonly used metals, the crustal abundance is low, the purification is difficult, and the chemical properties are stable, such as gold, silver and platinum group metals .
The property valence is between metals and nonmetals, such as silicon , selenium, tellurium , arsenic , boron , etc.
Including rare light metals , such as lithium , rubidium, cesium, etc.;
Rare refractory metals , such as titanium, zirconium , molybdenum , tungsten, etc.;
Rare dispersed metals , such as gallium , indium , germanium , etc.;
Rare earth metals such as scandium, yttrium , lanthanides ;
Radioactive metals , such as radium, francium , polonium , and uranium and thorium in the Albanian elements .
The specific surface area of non-ferrous metals is also very important. The specific surface area of non-ferrous metals can only be tested by the BET method to be true and reliable. There are many domestic instruments that can only be tested by the direct comparison method, which has also been eliminated in China. The specific surface area test at home and abroad adopts the multi-point BET method uniformly. The specific surface area measurement standards formulated at home and abroad are all based on the BET test method. Please refer to the Chinese National Standard (GB/T 19587-2004) - Gas Adsorption BET Principle Determination The method of specific surface area of solid matter.
The specific surface area detection is actually a time-consuming task. Due to the difference in the adsorption capacity of the samples, the test of some samples may take a whole day. If the test process is not fully automated, the test personnel cannot leave at all times and must High concentration, observing the instrument panel, manipulating the knob, a little carelessness will lead to the failure of the test process, which will waste a lot of precious time of the testers. Only the truly fully automated and intelligent specific surface area tester products meet the international standards of the testing instrument industry. All similar international products are fully automated, and manually operated instruments have long been eliminated abroad. The truly fully automated and intelligent specific surface area analyzer product liberates the testers from repetitive mechanical operations, greatly reducing their work intensity, simple training, and improved work efficiency. The truly fully automated and intelligent specific surface area analyzer product , which greatly reduces the error caused by human operation and improves the test accuracy.
Historically, the materials used in production tools have been continuously improved, which is closely related to the development of human society. Therefore, historians have used the material of utensils to mark historical periods, such as the Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age.
By the end of the 17th century, there were 8 kinds of non-ferrous metals that were clearly recognized and used by human beings. The Chinese nation has made significant contributions to the discovery and production of these non-ferrous metals (see History of Metallurgy).
After entering the 18th century, the rapid development of science and technology promoted the discovery of many new non-ferrous metal elements. Among the above-mentioned 64 kinds of non-ferrous metals, 13 kinds were discovered in the 18th century, except 8 kinds that had been recognized and applied before the 17th century. In the 19th century, 39 species were found, and in the 20th century, 4 more species were discovered.
Non-ferrous metals are essential basic materials and important strategic materials for national economy, people's daily life, national defense industry, scientific and technological development. Agricultural modernization, industrial modernization, national defense and scientific and technological modernization are inseparable from non-ferrous metals. For example, most of the components or components required for cutting-edge weapons such as aircraft, missiles, rockets, satellites, and nuclear submarines , as well as cutting-edge technologies such as atomic energy, television, communications, radar, and electronic computers are made of light metals and rare metals in non-ferrous metals; in addition, Without nickel, cobalt, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, niobium and other non-ferrous metals, there is no production of alloy steel . The use of non-ferrous metals in some applications (such as power industry, etc.) is also considerable. Many countries in the world, especially industrially developed countries, are competing to develop the non- ferrous metal industry and increase their strategic reserves of non-ferrous metals.
Today's non-ferrous metals have become an important material foundation that determines the development of a country's economy, science and technology, and national defense construction. It is also a key strategic resource for enhancing the country's comprehensive strength and ensuring national security. As the largest producer of non-ferrous metals, my country has made considerable progress in the field of non-ferrous metal research, especially in the development and utilization of complex low-grade non-ferrous metal resources.